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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 14-20

Prognostic factors of brainstem infarction in a sample of Egyptian patients


1 Department of Neurology, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt
2 Department of Radiology, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt
3 Department of Clinical Pathology, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Mahmoud S Attia
Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sjamf.sjamf_6_17

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Background Ischemic brainstem stroke is estimated to constitute 10% of all first ischemic brain strokes. Because the brainstem is involved in almost all of the important functions of the central nervous system, brainstem infarction (BSI) is relatively dangerous with a high mortality. Early prediction of the severity and degree of disability and identification of high-risk patients are critical for the treatment of patients with BSI. Objective This study aimed to evaluate patients with BSI in terms of clinical, laboratory, and radiological factors to study the outcomes of these patients. Patients and methods Patients were admitted at the Stroke Unit and Internal Neurology Department of Al-Azhar University Hospitals (Al-Hussein and Sayed Galal Hospitals), over a period of 6 months, from 1 December 2016 to 30 May 2017, with a diagnosis of acute BSI, confirmed by computed tomography brain and MRI brain with diffusion. The study included 31 patients and were subjected to clinical, laboratory, radiologic assessment (by computed tomography brain and MRI brain with diffusion), and assessment of severity by the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at the time of admission and discharge. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at discharge was used to divide patients into three groups: patients with mRS less than or equal to 2 were considered to have achieved a good outcome, those with mRS greater than 2–5 were considered to have achieved a poor outcome, and those who died had mRS equal to 6. Results Overall, 14 (45.2%) patients had a good prognosis, 13 (41.9%) patients had a poor prognosis, and four (12.9%) patients died. Dysphagia, vomiting, cranial neuropathy, and high NIHSS score on admission were associated with a poor outcome. There was no relationship between the outcomes of the studied patients in relation to age, sex, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, high lipid profile, smoking, previous cerebrovascular stroke, obesity. Conclusion Dysphagia, vomiting, cranial neuropathy, and high NIHSS score were associated with a poor prognosis.


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